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Deliverables 

  • WP1
    Deliverable D1.1: Database of noise environment

    One of the objectives of EVADER is to propose technologies that will allow the best compromise between the potential risk of quiet vehicles for pedestrians and the quietness of residents. WP1 aims to characterize noise environment in cities and comfort of residents.

    The 1st site was chosen by partners for its low traffic volume with a moderate noise level (around 40-50 dB(A)): low wind speeds, flat, clean asphalt pavement. The ambient level in the area should be representative of a quiet suburban area, which may be encountered by pedestrians. The 2nd site was chosen by partners for its moderate traffic volume with a noise level more representative of a city center (60-70 dB(A)). It will be necessary to have recordings during which no car is passing in front of the artificial head during clear sequences.

    This document shows the noise measurements carried out in three countries, by four different partners near their location, to have European representative data: Paris (France), Barcelona (Spain) and Darmstadt (Germany). A common protocol was defined, using a dummy head to be closer to the human ear (see appendix). Complementary data will be added to the database by AIT in February. The sound files are compared with US recordings from Nissan with microphones. The goal was to create a database of several background noises, representative of different urban environments (city centre, suburbs, countryside), in order to quantify the level of background noise during working days and the noise range covered.

    The results show that the expected variability between different locations is about 20 dB. The reference locations have been chosen that correspond with zones of low traffic volume (40-50 dB(A)) and zones of moderate traffic volume (60-70 dB(A)). The noise spectra of the various measurements show the same trends with a relatively higher value at frequencies below 60 Hz. The noise recordings at all points were carried out with a binaural system as time histories of the perceived sounds. These recordings will be used in future work packages to defined jury tests under laboratory conditions.

    Deliverable D1.2: List of vehicles under study

    This document presents the list of vehicles under study and mandatory characteristics including their noise level. The vehicles that have been already measured are:

    • Peugeot 106 (Electric)
    • Peugeot 3008 (Diesel)
    • Citroën C5 (Diesel)
    • Nissan Altima (Hybrid)
    • Renault Fluence (Electric, Diesel, Gasoline)
    • Renault Kangoo (Electric)
    • Renault Scenic (Gasoline)
    • Nissan LEAF (Electric)

    The vehicles that we could measure too are Peugeot ion and 207 diesel 99g de C02. We compared noise levels in dB (A) for electric and ICE vehicles approaching at low speeds or in reverse gear.

    Deliverable D1.3: Report on test conditions definition and measurement and judgment protocol

    This document will summarize the definition of the test conditions for a psychoacoustic listening test based on potential risk scenarios as well as an exemplary judgment protocol. The measurement protocols for the background noise and the risk scenarios are based on information delivered by the project partners Renault and IDIADA.

    The present document provides all necessary information for performing the following activities:

    • Background noise measurements for the database
    • Vehicle measurements for close to accident scenarios
    • Definition of general conditions for possible psychoacoustic listening tests
    • Proposal for a judgment protocol for the psychoacoustic listening test

    The questions proposed for the judgment protocol are strongly dependent on the objectives of the listening test. Those objectives should be defined in detail with the whole project Consortium.

    Deliverable D1.4: Safety Management between driver/vehicle and pedestrian

    In this report we revise important concepts that are related to the safety management between driver, vehicle and pedestrian. The point that we cover tries to emphasize certain concepts that will affect the concept, design and construction of the acoustic warning device to be implemented in eVADER. The points covered are:

    • Revision of accident causation
    • Statistical quantification of the effect of eVADER on accident reduction
    • Fundamental information for visually impaired (VI) and vulnerable road users
    • Safety warning sounds. From concept to design
    • Sensor integration for pedestrian collision warning system
    • The stereovision system from CONTINENTAL
    Deliverable D1.6: Noise Measurements of Representative Vehicles

    The objective of this test is to quantify the exterior noise detected by a pedestrian in a close to accident scenarios. In order to be as much precise as possible by acquiring relevant data related with that kind of noise, eight common accident scenarios in the city will be reproduced at IDIADA’s proving ground. These potential risk situations for pedestrians are described in annex 1 in this document. For each scenario, the noise level at both ears of an acoustic head has been measured and synchronized with the measurement of the spatial coordinates and speed of the test vehicle during the manoeuver close to the pedestrian.


  • WP2
    Deliverable D2.1: Parameter Selection and Stimuli Design Proposal

    One of the primary challenges of this project is the apparent lack of research that has focused on dynamic sound source localization, segregation within dynamic sonic environments. The lack of research is likely due to the overwhelming choice of variables and logistical concerns regarding control variables. Despite the lack of research, there is little doubt that there is need for this type of work and that the academic and industrial communities will benefit from carefully design studies that are based on empirical research. When researchers are faced with a lack of central research, they often look to relevant empirical literature that is associated with the central topic in order to derive converging evidence that can guide them in their research design. Fortunately, there are numerous lines of research that may be instructive for our stimuli design. In this deliverable, such an approach is taken by reviewing various domains of empirical literature that we propose should be the basis for our stimuli design. The state of the art is considered throughout, and certain sonic parameters are proposed to be critical for our design(s). The parameter selection is then outlined and described in detail. Taguchi’s (1987) Orthogonal Table methods for stimuli selection are reviewed and applied to our proposed design parameters. Finally, the development and utility of a sound design tool (eVADER synth) is briefly discussed.

    Deliverable D2.2: Perceptual test 1: Detectability

    The need for a solution to the increasing number of dangerously quiet cars as outlined deliverable 2.was the focus of the perceptual research conducted in work package 2.2. This research specifically focused on the detectability and localizability of experimental sounds synthesized according to sound features predicted to facilitate listener performance equitable to that of internal combustion cars. A primary concern for the consortium was to find a combination of sound features that may allow for such performance while maintaining sound levels that would not encroach upon the overall surrounding noise level of an urban soundscape. This research report summarizes the technical and research design used in our endeavor, as well as the human participant samples used in this set of studies.

    Generally, the results confirmed that the 3 selected sound features; harmonic complexity, frequency modulation and amplitude modulation are all important for a suitable replacement sound. However, these features are not equally influential. In line with predictions, when amplitude modulation increased over 3 levels, listener performance increased as well. The influence of both frequency modulation, and harmonic complexity had an overall inverse effect on listener performance, which was not predicted. As a result of the limitations of a fractional design, interactions were not predicted, but did seem to play a role in variance that could not be accounted for.

    Despite the limitations of a fractional design, the results were somewhat systematic. Results showed that 2 sounds were detected as quickly as the Diesel. Surprisingly, one sound produced ½ as many errors as the Diesel. These results have lead to clear recommendation for stimulus 313 for the prototype eVADER vehicle. Overall, it can be concluded that it is possible that a well-designed, quiet sound can equally, or even more effective as a Diesel engine which is ~ 10 dBA (peak level) louder in the virtual realm. These and other conclusions will be discussed along with suggestions for future research and potential risks.

    Deliverable D2.3: Perceptual Test 2: Sound Meaning

    The results of the experiments conducted in work package 2.2 showed that quiet warning sounds can be added to electric vehicles (EV) to make them as detectable as a diesel powered car. However, to achieve such results, it seems that an appropriate combination of the sound features coined frequency detuning, tonal content, and amplitude modulation must be attained for optimal detection. One warning sound in particular (313) worked particularly well for detection and was as good or arguably better than a diesel engine. The research conducted in work package 2.3 was focused on examining the utility of shifts in 313’s parameters as it pertains to listeners’ perceived safety with regard to the speed and location of an electric vehicle with added warning sounds (EV+S).

    The work presented here will focus on the experiment completed at INSA, Lyon. This experiment is currently being conducted at the following labs:

    1. Renault (Paris, France)
    2. Nissan (Sunderland, United Kingdom)
    3. LMS (Leuven, Belgium)
    4. TUD (Darmstadt, Germany)

    These results will be compiled and annexed to this document upon future completion. The general results of the work completed at INSA indicate that perception of danger increases with modulation rates but decrease with higher pitched sounds.

    Deliverable D2.4: Perceptual test 3: Unpleasantness

    This deliverable relates the last experiment conducted within the second work package of the project. This experiment focused on unpleasantness of warning sounds. All sounds already used in the work package have been presented to 39 listeners (through headphones), giving a total of 20 stimuli. Subjects were instructed that they should imagine themselves in the street, listening to a car passing by in front of them at the constant speed of 20 km/h. Sounds were presented twice, in a random order, in a monadic procedure. The subject's task consisted in evaluating the unpleasantness of each sound. The answer was given by moving a cursor on a slide appearing on the computer screen, labeled from "not at all unpleasant" to "extremely unpleasant".

    Results showed a rather low reliability of listeners : the two evaluations provided by a listener for the same sound could be very different. Nevertheless, the analysis was conducted from the average values of these two repetitions. It appeared that all warning sounds were rated as more unpleasant than the electric vehicle alone. Moreover, most of them were rated as more unpleasant than the diesel car, in spite of their lower sound pressure level. Four sounds only could not be considered as more unpleasant than the diesel car.

    One of these sounds is the one labeled as 111 in the first experiment. In this experiment, it has been shown that its detectability is rather high (the mean response time was 0.7 s higher than the one of the best warning sound). This sound could offer a good compromise between a high detectability and a limited unpleasantness.


  • WP3
    Deliverable D3.1: Report on the state of the art and spatial directivity requirements

    A description is given of existing methods for realization of acoustic warning signal generators for automotive applications, with a focus on the exterior of the vehicle. In view of the main eVader objective, being the warning of vulnerable road users by acoustic means with reduced overall noise pollution, directional sound sources are an important aspect of this study. Based on selected close-to-accident scenarios, requirements for directional sound sources are formulated in terms of the desired beam width and the angular rate of change of the beaming direction.

    The description of existing methods for acoustic warning signal generators starts with a comparison of different transducer principles that can be used for generating vibrations or acoustic source fields. Next a description is given of simulation methods for sound beam generators. Subsequently, a description is given of technologies for sound beam generators. Finally, an overview is given of sound beam generators for applications other than in vehicles.

    The study on spatial directivity provides requirements for the directivity and rate of change of the beaming direction based on the physical configuration for different scenarios, in which distances, speeds and possible collision angles are taken into account. The amount of reduction of the unwanted noise affecting other persons not involved in the danger situation is considered, in such a way that the advantages of electric technologies in terms of improving the current road noise environment are maintained. The minimum directivity index of the warning signal generator is specified, as well as the desired beam width and the minimum rate of the angular tracking speed of the beam.

    Deliverable D3.3: Report describing the recommended solutions with technical specifications

    This report provides a description of technical specifications for the design of a warning signal generator. Based on the findings of the previous Tasks 3.1 – 3.4, the criteria for ranking of the different solutions were determined and the solutions were ranked with respect to their applicability and their conformity with the requirements. Two suggested solutions are reported, resulting in a set of essential and optional technical specifications.


  • WP4
    Deliverable D4.1: State of the Art report concerning acoustic warning strategies

    The main objective of eVADER is to design and demonstrate a selective warning system for a passenger car to reduce the potential accident risk due to the low audibility of electric drive vehicles like hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and allelectric vehicles (EVs) at speeds below 50 km/h. The main idea is to use a selective, targeted acoustic warning device emitting carefully designed signals while at the same time making the car driver aware of the situation. In order to keep noise pollution as low as possible, the signals should only be emitted when necessary and should be directed at the endangered pedestrians. For this reason both appropriate interior and exterior warning systems as well as an environmental perception system is necessary, which allows to evaluate and assess the danger of the situation.

    Advanced interior warning systems are usually part of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which are designed to provide crucial information to the driver while managing complex situations. They are designed to quickly provide clear information about the diagnosed risk and about possible and recommendable actions. Correctly implemented, the combination of visual, acoustic and haptic stimuli can be used to trigger the correct actions quickly and reliably. Acoustic warning signals need to be audible, distinctive and unambiguous. A typical choice is represented by sound with frequency modulation over a large bandwidth.

    Exterior acoustic warning systems installed on an electric drive vehicle are designed to alert pedestrians of its approach. Due to the current legislation, guidelines and recommendations in Japan, the US and Europe electric and hybrid car manufacturers like Nissan or Toyota are developing and implementing exterior acoustic warning systems. The recommended signals are specified with respect to their loudness, locatability, directivity and other properties. This report gives an overview about systems which are already installed or are currently being developed. In addition, guidelines for similar auditory warning systems in other fields are discussed.

    Environmental perception systems based on sensor technology using laser, radar, microwave or infrared radiation provide a substantial input for ADAS and exterior warning systems. Data fusion technologies even allow combine inputs from several sensors to take advantage of their respective strengths. Environmental perception systems enable the car systems to recognize pedestrians and estimate their speed relative to the car, which makes it possible to recognize dangerous situations. This can be used for decisions on the use of exterior acoustic warning signals.

    In summary this report reviews the state of the art in three technological fields which will be important for the implementation of the eVADER project.


  • WP5
    Deliverable D5.2: Virtual exterior warning system evaluation

    This deliverable details the CAE-based design support tasks for the eVADER exterior warning signal generator. Hence, the activities detailed in this report closely relate to the research performed in task 3.4 of the eVADER project and the associated deliverable D3.2.

    As a first step in the extension of existing state-of-the-art numerical modeling approaches for acoustic radiation computation towards the exterior warning device analysis, a detailed design support process was put in place. The performance of acoustic beamforming transducers based on a collection independently driven electro-dynamic speakers is optimized taking into account various installation effects and environmental conditions. This process is detailed in section 2 of this report and illustrates the need for a close link between a set of suitable numerical models and the overall warning system design.

    Next, an inventory of existing acoustic sound radiation models is made. Their strengths and weaknesses with respect to the environmental conditions identified in WP3 as significantly impacting the warning system?s performance are catalogued. Based on this information, a balanced set of numerical models is selected to perform the needed design sensitivity study. The comparison of the different numerical modeling approaches is presented in section 3.

    Sections 4 and 5 describe the Finite Element and Boundary Element based acoustic radiation models used in the baseline and sensitivity study. Details on model creation, computational efforts and key obtained results are presented.

    The final section of this document gives an overview of the performed research steps and final outcome of the combined design study of WP3 and WP5 of the eVADER project.


  • WP6
    Deliverable D6.4: Report on the result of the vehicle evaluation test (Main functional systems)

    The assessment of the performance of eVADER as a vehicle capable of detecting close-to-accident pedestrians, generating a directional warning sound and adapting the generation of this warning to external circumstances that affect pedestrian risk needs to be carried out in order to validate the most important performance characteristic of the system.

    Work package 6 integrates the algorithms and hardware specified and developed in WP5 and into eVADER vehicle structure. Also, in this WP6, we assess the performance and suitability of the main functional systems using, simulated tests and real world physical tests.

    Therefore, it is the aim of this deliverable to present a set of tests and exercises that can be used to make a simple, feasible and realistic assessment of eVADER performance at a system level so that the preliminary level of achievement of eVADER technology can be quantified.

    The systems assessed in this deliverable are:

    • Stereo camera
    • Loudspeaker array directivity
    • Loudspeaker array omni-directionality
    • Background noise detection
    Deliverable D6.5: Example of warning sound suitable for Nissan, Renault and PSA

    The work carried out in WP2 defined a framework for warning sound definition in the domain of unpleasantness and detectability. However, current brand sounds used by OEMs are defined in such a way that designers have also to take into account artistic or musical components that are subjectively related to the image or positioning of the vehicle that will incorporate such sound.

    For example, the Renault Zoé “Z.E Voice” has been chosen by design, marketing and engineering Renault teams among several propositions designed by IRCAM taking into account both artistic and physical considerations. Nevertheless, this sound was designed before WP2 and doesn’t respect its recommendations as it is characterized by a large bandwidth and a light temporal fluctuation.

    In spite of these inconveniences, this sound was chosen by Nissan, PSA and Renault as the “brand sound” candidate. We preferred to test a sound that already exists on commercial car and that has been designed thanks to detection but also artistic and “brand identity” terms, even when eVADER principles are not respected. It will then be very interesting to explore the distance between this existing brand sound and the proposed eVADER design criteria.

    WP2 detectability and unpleasantness experiments were reproduced including this brand sound to position it in the frame of detectability / unpleasantness compromise. For a better comparison, the tested brand sound wasn’t directly measured on a Zoé but was synthesized following the same protocol as WP2 and the level was adjusted to correspond to WP2 synthesized warning sounds.

    The experiments results show that the “Brand Sound” proposed by Renault realizes a very interesting detectability / unpleasantness compromise as the detection time is almost sufficient and as this sound is significantly less unpleasant than WP2 sound s1, until now considered as the best warning sound compromise.

    The work presented herein reveals that the ‘distance’ between WP2 proposal and the reference Brand Sound used should be considered as an improvement potential for the brand sound design activity, since it exhibits other parameters that should also be studied in the sound design activity carried out by OEMs. Therefore, this report opens new paths for improvement of current Brand Sound, so that Sound Designers have additional criteria to tune their acoustic proposals in the multidimensional problem of defining Brand Sounds.


  • WP7
    Deliverable D7.1: Test plan for all the in-service activities (Proving ground and real urban areas)

    The assessment of the performance of eVADER as a vehicle capable of detecting close-to-accident pedestrians, generating a directional warning sound and adapting the generation of this warning to external circumstances that affect pedestrian risk needs to be carried out in order to validate the most important performance characteristics of the system.

    We note that the number and type of tests that can be performed to assess eVADER performance is extremely high. However, it is recognised that demonstrating that the system can perform the actions for which it was designed can be shown by devising very simple tests which can also be clear to understand if subjective information is required for jury members.

    Work package 7 (WP7) developed the validation activities of eVADER technology. Within this WP, we define the experimental plan, so that practical and feasible tests can be carried out taking into account the required validation.

    We have to emphasize that the possible range of tests that can be performed in the context of WP7 is very high. Thus, we have considered those tests that can be used to validate the most important eVADER characteristics and that make the system innovative with respect to other already existing ideas.

    Deliverable D7.2: Assessment of the performance of strategies and systems in realistic environments (proving ground and urban areas)

    The characteristics of eVADER technology involve artificial vision, detection of pedestrians, and generation of a directional sound sent toward a close-to-accident pedestrian. The main objective of this deliverable is to show to the jury that the EVADER prototype is capable of performing these actions and that they are also integrated so that they can act in real time and in a real situation. A demonstration event was carried out so that the attendants could learn and experience the various capabilities of eVADER first, independently and in isolation, and second, in an integrated manner. These demonstrations were designed to guide the jury from the simple concepts to the more complex interaction and integration of the fundamental eVADER capabilities (see deliverable D11.6 for more details about the definition of suitable tests for the final validation).


  • WP8
  • Deliverable D8.1: In-depth data test results (Extension deliverable D7.2)

    This deliverable is an extension of deliverable D7.2: Assessment of the performance of strategies and systems in realistic environments (proving ground and urban areas). In this case, deliverable D8.1 elaborates in more detail some of the measurements and conclusions reported in D7.2. In particular, the additional analysis will be focused on the results of Tests 4 and 5 reported in D7.2.

    For the convenience of the reader, deliverable D8.1 contains all the material already presented in D7.2, but includes additional analysis and considerations.


  • WP9 & WP10
  • Deliverable D9.1: Mid Term Technical Report & D10.1: Mid Term Administrative Report

  • WP11
    Deliverable D11.1: Project Website Structure
    Deliverable D11.3: First Public Workshop

    This task relates to the first public workshop organized at IDIADA on Nov. 21st 2013.

    This report summarizes the agenda and gives a short report.

    Deliverable D11.6: Final Public Workshop

    The final public workshop of eVADER was carried out on the 11th and 12th of December 2014 in IDIADA and Barcelona respectively. The main objective of the event was to show the attendants the capabilities of the new technology and provide the opportunity to assess the overall performance of the system in a controlled environment and realistic conditions in cities.

    The event covered numerous activities that included technical presentations, an EV experience, demonstrations of the eVADER vehicle in IDIADA’s facilities and also a demonstration carried out in the city of Barcelona with real traffic present.

    Deliverable D11.9: Report on policy and public authority and results

Official reports

Our publications

  • Parizet E., Robart R., Ellermeier W. "Auditory warnings for electric vehicles : detectability in normal-vision and visually-impaired listeners", Applied Acoustics 86 (2014), 50-58

  • Automotive NVH, 23-24 Jan. 2012, Wiesbaden (Germany), organized by IQPC
    On Warning Sounds of EVs for vulnerable road users
    J.J. Garcia (Applus+IDIADA)

  • Acoustics 2012, 23-27 April 2012, Nantes (France)
    Do Electric Cars Have to Make Noise? An Emblematic Opportunity for Designing Sounds and Soundscapes
    N. Misdariis, A. Cera (IRCAM), E. Levallois, C. Locqueteau (Renault)

  • Acoustics 2012, 23-27 April 2012, Nantes (France)
    eVADER: Electric Vehicle Alert for Detection and Emergency Response
    F. Dubois, G. Baudet (Renault) and J.-C. Chamard (PSA)

  • Inter-Noise 2012, 19-22 August 2012, New-York (USA),
    Tyre/Road Noise at Low Speeds
    M. Haider, M. Conter, R. Wehr (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology)

  • FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, 27-30 november 2012, Beijing (China)
    Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Volume 197, 2013, pp 463-475
    On Electric Vehicle Alert for Detection and Emergency Response
    J.J. Garcia, Y. Blecon, M.J. Dalmau (Applus+IDIADA)

  • AIA-DAGA 2013 Conference on Acoustics, 18-21 March 2013, Merano (Italy)
    eVADER: Electrical Vehicle Alert for Detection and Emergency Response
    P. Pondrom, J. Bos, H. Hanselka (TU Darmstadt),  J.J. Garcia (Applus+IDIADA)

  • AIA-DAGA 2013 Conference on Acoustics, 18-21 March 2013, Merano (Italy)
    Real-time Steerable Directional Sound Sources
    A.P. Berkhoff (TNO), R. Van der Rots (University Twente)

  • AIA-DAGA 2013 Conference on Acoustics, 18-21 March 2013, Merano (Italy)
    eVADER: A Perceptual Study of Three Sound Features Predicted to Increase the Ability of Pedestrians to Detect and Localize Hybrid and electric Vehicles (Quiet Cars) While Maintaining Low-Level Sound Emission
    R. Robart, E. Parizet (INSA), J.-C. Chamard (PSA), K. Janssens, F. Bianciardi (LMS), J. Schlittenlacher, W. Ellermeier, P. Podrom (TU Darmstadt), J. Cockram, P. Speed-Andrews, G. Hatton (Nissan)

  • International Congress on Acoustics, 2-7 June 2013, Montréal (Canada)
    Detectability and annoyance of warning sounds for electric vehicles
    E. Parizet, R. Robart (INSA), J.C. Chamard (PSA), J. Schlittenlacher, P. Pondrom, W. Ellermeier (TU Darmstadt), F. Biancardi, K. Janssens (LMS), P. Speed-Andrews, J. Cochran, G. Hatton (Nissan)

  • TRA 2014, Transport Research Arena 2014, 14-17 April 2014, Paris (France)
    eVADER: Directional Acoustic Warning System for VRU
    S. Boverie, M. Cour (Continental), D. Kotiadis (TNO), M. Conter, Simon Breuss (AIT)

  • TRA 2014, Transport Research Arena 2014, 14-17 April 2014, Paris (France)
    Additional efficient warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicles
    E. Parizet, R. Robart (INSA), P. Pondrom (TU Darmstadt), J.C. Chamard (PSA), G. Baudet (Renault), D. Quinn (Nissan), K. Janssens (LMS), M. Haider (AIT)

  • Congrès Français d'Acoustique, 22-15 April 2014, Poitiers (France)
    Perception de signaux d'avertissement de véhicules électriques
    E. Parizet (INSA)

  • FISITA 2014, World Automotive Congress 2014, 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht (Netherlands)
    Warning sounds for electric vehicles
    E. Parizet, R. Robart (INSA), W. Ellermeier (TU Darmstadt), K. Janssens,F. Biancardi (LMS), M. Haider (AIT), D. Quinn (Nissan), J.C. Chamard (PSA)

  • FISITA 2014, World Automotive Congress 2014, 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht (Netherlands)
    eVADER : the development and evaluation results of a next-generation pedestrian alert solution for quiet electric vehicles
    D. Quinn (Nissan), J.C. Garcia (IDIADA), J. Mitchell, P. Clark (Nissan)

  • FISITA 2014, World Automotive Congress 2014, 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht (Netherlands)
    On the design of a (H)EV steerable warning device using acoustic beamforming and advanced numerical acoustic simulation
    B. van Genechten (LMS), A. Berkhoff (TNO)

  • Forum Acusticum, 7-12 September 2014, Krakow (Poland)
    Additional efficient warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicle
    E. Parizet, R. Robart (INSA), W. Ellermeier (TU Darmstadt), K. Janssens,F. Biancardi (LMS), M. Haider (AIT), Y. Leduc (Renault), D. Quinn (Nissan), J.C. Chamard (PSA)

  • Assises de l'Environnement Sonore, 14-16 October 2014, Lyon (France)
    Signaux d'alerte de véhicules silencieux
    E. Parizet (INSA)

  • Internoise, 16-19 November 2014, Melbourne (Australia)
    Development of a next-generation audible pedestrian alert system for Evs having minimal impact on environmental noise levels project eVADER
    D. Quinn (Nissan)

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